Use Boolean Operators (AND, OR, NOT) to connect keywords. Use "phrase searching" to keep multi-word phrases (ex. "global warming") together as one concept. Use truncation (*) to get varying forms of a word (ex. athlet* retrieves athlete, athletes, athletic, athletics, athletically).
Using Boolean Operators (2:14) from California State University, San Bernardino.
Phrase Searching and Truncation (3:13) from California State University, San Bernardino.
The easiest way to search for information electronically is to enter a couple of keywords into the search box of the search tool and see what type of results you get.
For example, to find information on the ability of Bell Telephone companies to compete in long-distance markets, you might use just these keywords and phrases:
Bell, telephone, long-distance, competition
This strategy, however, will often result in too few, too many, or irrelevant results.
In order to retrieve the most relevant results, you will need to construct a SEARCH STRING. A search string is a combination of keywords, quotation marks, truncation symbols, and Boolean operators which you enter into the search box of a database or an Internet search engine.
For example, when searching for information to support the statement Performance enhancing drugs raise serious ethical questions for athletes you could use this search string:
“performance enhancing drugs” AND ethic* AND athlet*
Look below for more information on quotation marks, truncation symbols and boolean operators.
Double quotation marks (" ") around a phrase will hold the words together and force the search engine to find the exact phrase rather than just the individual words in the phrase. ex. "global warming" "The Scarlet Letter"
Truncation symbols can broaden your search and allow you to look for variations of words. For example: sport* would bring up variations such as sport, sports, sporting, sporty, etc.
Note: The truncation symbol varies depending on the search tool you are using. For more information, consult the database’s “help” or “search tips” pages.
Boolean searching is the traditional way to search for information in most online databases and on the Internet. Boolean operators or connector words, such as AND, OR, and NOT, are used to create phrases and concepts based on specific rules of search logic.
|business AND ethics
cookery AND Spain
Retrieves records that contain ALL of the search terms.
|hotels OR motels
www OR world wide web
theater OR theatre
|Retrieves records that contain ANY of the search terms, but does not necessarily include all of them.|
|java NOT coffee
Clinton NOT Bill
|Excludes records containing the second search term.|