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APA Style Guide - 7th edition

A guide to APA style

Online Works

Webpage:

  • If you cite more than one webpage from a website, create a reference for each.
  • If you cannot find an author, try looking on an About Us or Acknowledgements page. 
  • If the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element. 
  • Include the most specific date possible or (n.d.) if you cannot find a date. 
  • Include a retrieval date only if the content will likely change and there is no archived URL.  Most Webpage references will not include a retrieval date. 

Author, A. A. (year, Month, day). Title of work. Site Name. https://xxx

Example: 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, April 13). Use of cloth face coverings to help slow the spread of

     COVID-19https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/diy-cloth-face-coverings.html

⇒ In-text parenthetical citation: (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020)

⇒ In-text narrative citation: Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2020)

Whole Website:

  • Do not create references or in-text citations for whole websites.
  • To mention a website in general, and not any particular information on that site, provide the name of the website in the text and include the URL in parentheses.
  • If you are writing online, you can link the name of the site directly so that the link has descriptive text.

Example:

Print:  We created our survey using Qualtrics (https://www.qualtrics.com).

Online:  We created our survey using Qualtrics.

(Hint:  Do not use highlighting in your reference list.)


For more details see pages 350–352, page 290 in the APA Manual or

APA Style Guide https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples/webpage-website-references

YouTube, Vimeo, etc. streaming video sites:

  • The person or group who uploaded the video is the author, even if they did not create the work. 
  • Include the specific date. 
  • Italicize the title. 

Uploader, U. U. (year, Month day). Title of video [Description]. Site Name. https://xxx

Example:

ABC News. (2015, July 26). Teenagers lost at sea [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/A1q_mQIEYqg

⇒ In-text parenthetical citation: (ABC News, 2015)

⇒ In-text narrative citation: ABC News (2015)

(Hint:  Do not use highlighting in your reference list.)


For more details see pages 350–352, page 290 in the APA Manual or

APA Style Guide https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples/youtube-references

Audio or Video Podcasts Episodes (part of a whole podcast):

  • List the host of the podcast as author. 
  • Use the most specific date: year, Month day 
  • If the URL is no known (e.g., accessed through an app), omit.

Host, H. H. (Host). (year, Month day). Title of episode [Description]. In Title of podcast. Production Company. https://xxx

Example: 

Demby, G., & Grigsby Bates, K. (Hosts). (2020, May 13). Ask code switch: The Coronavirus edition. [Audio podcast

     episode]. In Code switchNPR. https://www.npr.org/2020/05/12/854977002/ask-code-switch-the-coronavirus-

     edition

⇒ In-text parenthetical citation: (Demby & Grigsby Bates, 2020)

⇒ In-text narrative citation: Demby and Grigsby Bates (2020)

Audio or Video Podcast (whole podcast):

  • For a whole podcast series, list the host as author.  Alternatively, you can list the executive producer(s) as author(s).
  • The APA guide shows the date as a range for a podcast series, e.g., (2012–2017). 
Host, H. H. (Host). (Date range). Title of podcast [Description]. Production Company. https://xxx

Example:

Vedantam, S. (Host). (2015–present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR.

     https://www.npr.org/series/423302056/hidden-brain 

⇒ In-text parenthetical citation: (Vedantam, 2015–present)

⇒ In-text narrative citation: Vedantam (2015–present)

(Hint:  Do not use highlighting in your reference list.)


For more details see pages 341–346 in the APA Manual.

Social Media Platform:

  • Cite only original content from the site. 
  • If you used a social media site to discover content, use the website, etc. where the content was originally posted as your source (e.g., you find a Pinterest post on Facebook, cite Pinterest). 
  • Use specific dates, if possible: year, Month day. 
  • Include non-standard spellings, symbols, emojis, etc. if they are used. 
  • Use only a URL (https://xxx) if the source does not change; if it does, use Retrieved Month day, year from https://xxx .

Facebook and Others:

Author, A. A. (Date). Content of the post up to 20 words. [Description]. Site Name. https://xxx or

Retrieved Month day, year, from https://xxx

Example: 

National Park Service. (n.d.). Home. [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved August 1, 2018, from

     https://www.facebook.com/nationalparkservice/

⇒ In-text parenthetical citation: (National Park Service, n.d.)

⇒ In-text narrative citation: National Park Service (n.d.)

Twitter, Instagram, TikTok:

Author, A. A. [@username]. (Date). Content of post up to 20 words. [Description]. Site Name. https://xxx or

Retrieved Month day, year, from https://xxx

Example: 

Trump, D. [@realDonaldTrump]. (2017, January 3). I will be having a general news conference on JANUARY

     ELEVENTH in N.Y.C. Thank you. [Tweet]. Twitter. 

      https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/816433590892429312

⇒  In-text parenthetical citation: (Trump, 2017)

⇒ In-text narrative citation: Trump (2017)

(Hint:  Do not use highlighting in your reference list.)


For more details see pages 348–350 in the APA Manual or

APA Style Guide https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples/facebook-references

APA Style Guide https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples/twitter-references

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