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APA Style Guide - 7th edition

A guide to APA style

Audiovisual Works

How to credit and online image depends on various factors. 
  • In-text citation vs. copyright attribution:
    • Use an in-text citation to cite (if you did not reproduce) an online image in your paper.
    • Use a copyright attribution if you reproduce an online image that requires attribution in your paper.
    • Use one or the other, not both, per image. 
    • See the APA Style Guide links below. 
  • If an image license indicates no attribution is necessary, no in-text citation, reference list entry or attribution are required. 
  • If an image license indicates attribution is necessary, a copyright attribution and reference list entry are required. 
  • Clip art from Microsoft tools such as Word or PowerPoint can be used w/o in-text citations, attributions or references.
  • The corresponding References entry is the same for both. 
  • It is best to use online images that have a Creative Commons license or are in the public domain. 
  • Some suggested image websites are: Wikimedia Commons, flickr, Pixaby, Unsplash

Reference for an online image:

Creator, C. C. (Date). Title of image [Description]. Site Name. https://xxx

Reference and In-text citation of an image cited in a paper (no image used):

Reference Example:

Ee, R. (2015). Pacu Jawi -Final-45 [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons.


⇒ In-text parenthetical citation: (Ee, 2015)

⇒ In-text narrative citation: Ee (2015)

Copyright Attribution for an image used:

From Title of image [Description], by C. C. Creator, Year, Site Name (https://xxx). Copyright information. 

Attribution Example (beneath the image, in the paper):

From Lava [Photograph], by Denali National Park and Preserve, 2013, Flickr

     ( CC BY 2.0.

⇒ This serves as the in-text citation.  

Reference Example:

Denali National Park and Preserve. (2013). Lava [Photograph]. Flickr.

⇒ This is the reference entry for the copyright attribution above. 

(Hint:  Do not use highlighting in your reference list.)

Scroll through the subsequent tabs, above, for information about how to cite articles.  

For more details see pages 346–347, pages 384–390 in the APA Manual or

APA Style Guide

Museum or Museum Website:

  • Includes paintings, sculptures, photographs, prints, drawings, installations, 3D pieces. 
  • The museum location includes the city; state (U.S. states abbreviated), province or territory; country. 
Artist. A. A. (Date). Title of work [Description]. Museum Name, Museum Location. https://xxx

David, J. L. (1817). Cupid and Psyche [Painting]. Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, OH United


⇒ In-text parenthetical citation: (David, 1817)

⇒ In-text narrative citation David (1817)

(Hint:  Do not use highlighting in your reference list.)

For more details see pages 341–342 and 347 in the APA Manual or

APA Style Guide

Film or video: 

Director, D. D. (Director). (Year). Title of work [Description]. Production Company. https://xxx

Curtiz, M. (Director). (1942). Casablanca [Film]. Warner Bros. Studios. 

⇒ In-text parenthetical citation: (Curtiz, 1942)

⇒ In-text narrative citation: Curtiz (1942)

(Hint:  Do not use highlighting in your reference list.)

For more details see pages 341–343 in the APA Manual or

APA Style Guide 

TV series (whole work):

Producer, P. P. (Executive Producer). (Year–Year). Title of series [Description]. Production Company. https://xxx

Angell, D., Casey, P., & Lee, D. (Executive Producers). (1990–1997). Wings [TV series]. Grub-Street Productions. 

⇒ In-text parenthetical citation: (Angell, et al., 1990–1997)

⇒ In-text narrative citation: Angell, et al. (1990–1997)

TV series episode (part of a whole work):

Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (year, Month day). Title of episode (Season No., Episode

     No.) [Description]. In P. P. Producer (Executive Producer), Title of series. Production Company.


Diamond, B. (Writer), Saltzman, M. (Writer), & Ackerman, A. (Director). (1992, February 20). Das plane (Season 3,

     Episode 17) [TV series episode]. In D. Angell, P. Casey, & D. Lee (Executive Producer), Wings. Grub Street


⇒ In-text parenthetical citation: (Diamond & Saltzman, 1992)

⇒ In-text narrative citation: Diamond and Saltzman (1992)

(Hint:  Do not use highlighting in your reference list.)

For more details see pages 341–343 in the APA Manual or

APA Style Guide


  • Include a URL in the reference if that is the only means of retrieval. 
Musician, M. M. (Year). Title of album [Description]. Label. https://xxx

Bowie, D. (2016). Blackstar [Album]. Columbia. 

⇒ In-text parenthetical citation: (Bowie, 2016)

⇒ In-text narrative citation: Bowie (2016)

Single song:

Musician, M. M. (Year). Title of song [Description]. On Title of album. Label. https://xxx

Dylan, B. (1963). A hard rain's a-gonna fall [Song]. On The freewheelin' Bob Dylan. Columbia. 

⇒ In-text parenthetical citation: (Dylan, 1963)

⇒ In-text narrative citation: Dylan (1963)

(Hint:  Do not use highlighting in your reference list.)

For more details see pages 341–345 in the APA Manual.

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